ChapterⅠ General Introduction
1.1 Background of the Project
Nowadays, with the rapid development of society, the internationalization of education has become the trend of education reform and development in the world today. Education reform has gradually become the focus of many countries and regions. (Wolfgang, 2007) Since the founding of New China, the importance of education has attracted attention in society. As an important way to cultivate the talents who are useful to the society, education plays an increasingly important role in today. Effective teaching develops rapidly, and the achievements in this field are constantly updated. The introduction and exchange of cutting-edge academic achievements is very important for the development of education in China. The practice results of translation in effective teaching has increased year by year, but it is necessary to bring in oversea new research achievements in order to keep up with the cutting-edge research in the field of effective teaching. Therefore, effective teaching must be consistently developed and translated into advanced teaching materials and works in order to be in line with international higher education.
After a large number of searches, the author found that the translation literature and research on educational texts are uncommon. The author hopes that the research and translation of this text will provide corresponding reference for similar text translation. By translating the text, we can learn about the foreign education system, education status and existing problems. This has a certain reference function to China’s education system, so it has great translation value.
In the processes of translation, the author strives to improve the language expression ability, comprehensively uses a variety of translation strategies, and collects available resources. The author hopes that through this translation practice and the writing of this report, author will promote translation practice ability to a certain extent. To further improve the author’s professional quality.
1.2 Overview of the Source Text
1.2.1 Content of the Source Text
The source text is an information text to introduce Effective Teaching in Schools, This book focuses on both education and learning aspects of effective teaching in school education. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is Chapter 2 to 3. It focuses on providing an understanding of key issues that are fundamental to enhancing effective teaching and the nature of student learning. The second part is Chapter 4 to 8, focusing on the implementation of effective classroom practices. Finally, the third part is Chapter 9, which deals with reflections on teaching experience.
1.2.2 Text-Type of the Source Text
This article belongs to the pedagogical article, the style is formal, and the words are refined, standardized, and rigorous. However, in the division of the text-type, the translator delineates this article as an informational text based on previous studies. In the field of translation studies, these two people have made important contributions to the theory of text-type, one is Reiss and the other is Newmark. (李曉君, 2011; 劉軍平, 2009; Munday, 2001)
In the 1970s, the representative of German Functionalist School, Reiss, proposed the Text Theory. According to many theoretical studies, Reiss concluded that text could be divided into three types, informational text, expressive text, and operational text. (沈妍伶, 2017) The theory of Reiss’s text type is proposed to a certain extent on the basis of the British scholar Newmark’s theory. Newmark divided it according to the function of language, namely information function, expression function and inspiration function, and also divides the text into three types, namely information, expression and inspiration. (Newmark, 2001; 孔喜悅, 2017)
ChapterⅡ Translation Processes
2.1 Pre-translation Preparation
Before the translation, the author did a lot of preparations. First of all, the translator reads the full text, and understands the basic structure of the text, then accepts the guidance and suggestions of the tutor. Next, the translator reads the source text repeatedly to let author have a deeper understanding of the content. Secondly, the translator consults a large number of parallel texts, looks through the relevant information, grasps and determines the translation form of professional vocabulary, learning about the relevant things. Third, the translator reads a lot of books about translation theory, puts the strong theoretical foundation as the support of the report. (傅勇林, 2011) Finally, the translation theory is selected according to the text type and linguistic features.
Since the text mainly expounds effective teaching to the readers, it is necessary to make the translation objective and accurate, then convey the original information properly, so that the target readers can understand the essence of the source text as far as possible. Fourthly, the author has prepared a wealth of translation aids (冉文婷, 2017; 張萬防, 2015), including the English-Chinese Dictionary edited by Lu Gusun, the Oxford Higher-order English-Chinese Dictionary and the New Century Chinese-English Dictionary. Now, the network information covers a wide range of information, and the search speed is fast. In the processes of translation, translators need to use various search engines, such as Google, Baidu and so on, to ensure the accuracy of translation, let the target text be reasonable.
2.2 Translation Procedures
In the whole processes of translation, the author first makes a general reading of the source text of the translation practice, and has a preliminary understanding of its content, number of words and style of writing. The translator also completed the finalization within the prescribed time according to the school’s goals and tutor’s opinions. The translator consults the major websites and related parallel texts, and summarizes the terminology. After choosing the theory, combined with the characteristics of educational text language, the author began to translate.
In the whole translation processes, the translator is still constantly enhancing the knowledge and consulting professionals to translate proper nouns. After the translation of each paragraph, the translator will check the contents of the translation, and modify the omissions, so as to ensure the uniformity of terminology and the consistency of the translation. The uncertain places and difficulties are marked for future review. When the translator has some inaccuracies, consults the parallel text at first, and then discusses with colleagues. The translator organizes and summarizes the existing problems in the translation processes, and repeatedly interprets the translations, so that they can be summarized and as the preparation for case analysis in the future. Translator analyzes and summarizes the problems and difficulties that is encountered in the translation processes every day, and classifies them to find out the corresponding solutions. Try to make the expression of the translation fit the target readers’ thinking and realize the communicative function of translation. Generally speaking, the preparatory work of translation is closely related to the whole translation processes. There are many unexpected problems in the processes of translation. The translator tries to solve these problems through various methods. In many cases, although the translator thinks that translation is reasonable, others may not think so. Therefore, in the translation project, students from the education majors are also specially asked to give their opinions with professional eyes to avoid the one-sided view of the translator. The translator thinks that only when most people have given the opinion, can we get more objective results.
ChapterⅢ Description of the Translation Theory ..................................... 9
3.1 Skopos Theory ................................... 9
3.2 Three Principles of Skopos Theory ........................ 11
ChapterⅣ Case Study Based on Skopos Theory ................................. 15
4.1 Application of Skopos Rule ................................... 15
4.2 Application of Coherence Rule ............................... 17
ChapterⅤ Summary .................................... 23
5.1 Deficiency and Experience ............................ 25
5.2 Translation Enlightenment ...................... 26
ChapterⅣ Case Study Based on Skopos Theory
4.1 Application of Skopos Rule
The Skopos Rule can be expressed as translating/ interpreting/ speaking/ writing in a way that enables the text/ translation to achieve its intended function in the context in which it is used, consistent with the way the text/translation user wants the text to achieve its intended function. (Nord, 2001) Vermeer’s “translation/ interpretation/ speaking/ writing” is a continuous concept. (Gentzler, 2008) In order to achieve effective communication, the translator must put the acceptability of language in the first place. There are great differences between Chinese and English. Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family and English belongs to the Indo-European language family. According to the summary of the famous translator Lian Shuneng, the differences are mainly divided into ten categories: analysis and synthesis, dispersion and aggregation, parataxis and combination, brevity and complexity, person and object, initiative and passivity, dynamic and static, concrete and abstract, direct and indirect, repetition and substitution. (連淑能, 2010) The author chooses several groups that are more obvious in the translation processes and explains the translation strategies.
5.1 Deficiency and Experience
In this translation processes, the translator also has a lot of gains. First of all, the translator can basically complete the task within the time specified by the school. Second, the translator makes reasonable use of the surrounding resources. The author also can effectively use the Internet search engine to solve the problems encountered in the translation processes. If the network resources cannot be used for processing, then ask students modestly, so that the problem can have a reasonable solution. Next, translation is a dynamic process, which requires the translator to have solid theoretical knowledge. Effectively link the theoretical knowledge learned to achieve the combination of theoretical knowledge and practice in a certain degree. In this translation project, the author connects the translation methods and translation theory to guide the translation practice. The source text is an educational text, which involves the relevant knowledge of education, so the translation should be based on the Skopos Theory, which requires the translator to learn and master the background knowledge of educational knowledge. Since each text type is different, the translator should also accurately analyze the text type and choose the appropriate translation methods and strategies for the source text. Engaging in English-Chinese translation requires a comprehensive understanding of English. The translator should have a comprehensive knowledge of grammar, a large vocabulary, a large amount of reading, a broad range of grammar, semantics, pragmatics, stylistic knowledge, the accumulation of idioms and so on. Without accurate understanding, the correct expression cannot be discussed, and the level of Chinese language directly affects the quality of the translation. We cannot ignore the learning of the native language and strive to improve Chinese language cultivation. Read more classics, learn authentic Chinese, and improve the ability of Chinese writing.